Menu

Close

Peculiar features of the plastids of the colourless alga Euglena longa and photosynthetic euglenophytes unveiled by transcriptome analyses

Kristina Zahonova, Zoltan Fussy, Erik Bircak, Anna M. G. Novak Vanclova, Vladimir Klimes, Matej Vesteg, Juraj Krajcovic, Miroslav Obornik, Marek Elias

Preprint posted on June 29, 2018 https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/06/29/358895

It’s not easy being green – how a remodelled chloroplast is maintained in a non-photosynthetic algae by looking at the transcriptome of Euglena longa to reveal how it assembles and maintains its non-photosynthetic, but still vital, plastid.

Selected by Ellis O'Neill

Background

Euglena are a group of  algae that show characteristics of both plants and animals, while in evolutionary terms are related to the human pathogens Trypanosoma and LeishmaniaEuglena longa is a non-photosynthetic species, which cannot lose its plastid, unlike the photosynthetic species E. gracilis. Not much is known about the cell biology of E. longa or why it maintains a non-photosynthetic plastid.

Overview

This preprint presents the transcriptome of E. longa in comparison with those already available from three other photosynthetic Euglena to investigate the mechanisms of plastid maintenance and the targeting of proteins into this organelle. The authors show some very interesting features of the plastid, such as differences in import of proteins, with very different requirements when large amounts of photosynthetic machinery are needed. For instance, the photosynthetic membranes are not required in E. longa and the machinery for inserting proteins into this membrane are lacking.

This paper discusses fascinating details of the plastid biology and in particular picks apart protein import and the housekeeping proteins in these different species. There has not previously been much work looking at the specifics of the plastid maintenance and housekeeping in this group of alga and, by combining the new transcriptome data with that already known, the authors have had the opportunity to really look at how this group of organisms have similarities and differences with other plastid-baring organisms. There are many hypothesis developed that would need testing, but the proposals in this paper are a great starting point.

Future Outlook

There are a few transcriptomes available from this group of algae, and we can expect more to come out for species of particular interest. However, there are no genomes available, and this remains a goal of this field. Once we understand a bit more about how genes are regulated there will be great opportunities to study the cell biology and biochemistry and to leverage this group of algae for biotechnology.

Further Reading

Euglena gracilis transcriptome

(http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2015/mb/c5mb00319a)

Euglena for biotechnology

(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168165614010347?via%3Dihub)

 

Posted on: 11th July 2018 , updated on: 17th July 2018

Read preprint (No Ratings Yet)




  • Author's response

    Kristina Záhonová shared

    Euglenophytes are an interesting group of algae with various trophic strategies. Euglena longa represents an organism that secondarily lost its photosynthetic abilities. We present a comparative analysis of deeply covered euglenophyte transcriptomes and reveal their specificities with respect to plastid maintenance. Euglenophytes appear to possess a simplified plastid import machinery with most known chloroplast translocon (TOC/TIC) components absent. Some of the nucleus-encoded plastid-targeted proteins are translocated as translational fusions and split in the plastid stroma upon import. We also document how several cases of functional horizontal gene transfers from prokaryotes shape the euglenophyte biology. In summary, our analyses point out several possible directions of future molecular biology research in euglenophytes.

    Have your say

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

    This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

    Sign up to customise the site to your preferences and to receive alerts

    Register here

    Also in the cell biology category:

    Super-resolution Molecular Map of Basal Foot Reveals Novel Cilium in Airway Multiciliated Cells

    Quynh Nguyen, Zhen Liu, Rashmi Nanjundappa, et al.



    Selected by Robert Mahen

    Single cell RNA-Seq reveals distinct stem cell populations that drive sensory hair cell regeneration in response to loss of Fgf and Notch signaling

    Mark E. Lush, Daniel C. Diaz, Nina Koenecke, et al.

    AND

    Distinct progenitor populations mediate regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    Eric D Thomas, David Raible



    Selected by Rudra Nayan Das

    1

    Actomyosin-II facilitates long-range retrograde transport of large cargoes by controlling axonal radial contractility

    Tong Wang, Wei Li, Sally Martin, et al.



    Selected by Ivana Viktorinová

    Atlas of Subcellular RNA Localization Revealed by APEX-seq

    Furqan M Fazal, Shuo Han, Pornchai Kaewsapsak, et al.

    AND

    Proximity RNA labeling by APEX-Seq Reveals the Organization of Translation Initiation Complexes and Repressive RNA Granules

    Alejandro Padron, Shintaro Iwasaki, Nicholas Ingolia



    Selected by Christian Bates

    Applications, Promises, and Pitfalls of Deep Learning for Fluorescence Image Reconstruction

    Chinmay Belthangady , Loic A. Royer



    Selected by Romain F. Laine

    Stable knockout and complementation of receptor expression using in vitro cell line derived reticulocytes for dissection of host malaria invasion requirements

    Timothy J Satchwell, Katherine E Wright, Katy L Haydn-Smith, et al.



    Selected by Alyson Smith

    Maintenance of spatial gene expression by Polycomb-mediated repression after formation of a vertebrate body plan

    Julien Rougot, Naomi D Chrispijn, Marco Aben, et al.



    Selected by Yen-Chung Chen

    1

    Activation of intracellular transport by relieving KIF1C autoinhibition

    Nida Siddiqui, Alice Bachmann, Alexander J Zwetsloot, et al.



    Selected by Ben Craske, Thibault Legal and Toni McHugh

    1

    A non-canonical arm of UPRER mediates longevity through ER remodeling and lipophagy.

    Joseph R Daniele, Ryo Higuchi-Sanabria, Vidhya Ramachandran, et al.



    Selected by Sandra Franco Iborra

    1

    Basal extrusion drives cell invasion and mechanical stripping of E-cadherin

    John Fadul, Gloria M Slattum, Nadja M Redd, et al.



    Selected by William Hill

    Ribosomal DNA and the rDNA-binding protein Indra mediate non-random sister chromatid segregation in Drosophila male germline stem cells

    George Watase, Yukiko Yamashita



    Selected by Maiko Kitaoka

    An F-actin shell ruptures the nuclear envelope by sorting pore-dense and pore-free membranes in meiosis of starfish oocytes

    Natalia Wesolowska, Pedro Machado, Celina Geiss, et al.



    Selected by Maiko Kitaoka

    1

    Multi-color single molecule imaging uncovers extensive heterogeneity in mRNA decoding

    Sanne Boersma, Deepak Khuperkar, Bram M.P. Verhagen, et al.



    Selected by Lorenzo Lafranchi

    Multi-color single molecule imaging uncovers extensive heterogeneity in mRNA decoding

    Sanne Boersma, Deepak Khuperkar, Bram M.P. Verhagen, et al.

    AND

    Live-cell single RNA imaging reveals bursts of translational frameshifting

    Kenneth R Lyon Jr, Luis U Aguilera, Tatsuya Morisaki, et al.



    Selected by Nicola Stevenson

    A non-canonical arm of UPRER mediates longevity through ER remodeling and lipophagy.

    Joseph R Daniele, Ryo Higuchi-Sanabria, Vidhya Ramachandran, et al.



    Selected by Sandra Malmgren Hill

    Microtubules Gate Tau Condensation to Spatially Regulate Microtubule Functions

    Ruensern Tan, Aileen J. Lam, Tracy Tan, et al.

    AND

    Kinetically distinct phases of tau on microtubules regulate kinesin motors and severing enzymes

    Valerie Siahaan, Jochen Krattenmacher, Amayra Hernandez-Vega, et al.



    Selected by Satish Bodakuntla

    2

    Also in the evolutionary biology category:

    Symmetry breaking in the embryonic skin triggers a directional and sequential front of competence during plumage patterning

    Richard Bailleul, Carole Desmarquet-Trin Dinh, Magdalena Hidalgo, et al.



    Selected by Alexa Sadier

    Bridging the divide: bacteria synthesizing archaeal membrane lipids

    Laura Villanueva, F. A. Bastiaan von Meijenfeldt, Alexander B. Westbye, et al.

    AND

    Extensive transfer of membrane lipid biosynthetic genes between Archaea and Bacteria

    Gareth A. Coleman, Richard D. Pancost, Tom A. Williams



    Selected by Gautam Dey

    1

    PUMILIO hyperactivity drives premature aging of Norad-deficient mice

    Florian Kopp, Mehmet Yalvac, Beibei Chen, et al.



    Selected by Carmen Adriaens

    Eukaryotic acquisition of a bacterial operon

    Jacek Kominek, Drew T. Doering, Dana A. Opulente, et al.



    Selected by Lauren Neves

    millepattes micropeptides are an ancient developmental switch required for embryonic patterning

    Suparna Ray, Miriam I Rosenberg, Hélène Chanut-Delalande, et al.



    Selected by Erik Clark

    Conserved phosphorylation hotspots in eukaryotic protein domain families

    Marta J Strumillo, Michaela Oplova, Cristina Vieitez, et al.



    Selected by Gautam Dey

    Peculiar features of the plastids of the colourless alga Euglena longa and photosynthetic euglenophytes unveiled by transcriptome analyses

    Kristina Zahonova, Zoltan Fussy, Erik Bircak, et al.



    Selected by Ellis O'Neill

    1

    The Ly6/uPAR protein Bouncer is necessary and sufficient for species-specific fertilization

    Sarah Herberg, Krista R Gert, Alexander Schleiffer, et al.



    Selected by James Gagnon

    Timed collinear activation of Hox genes during gastrulation controls the avian forelimb position

    Chloe Moreau, Paolo Caldarelli, Didier Rocancourt, et al.



    Selected by Wouter Masselink

    The genomic basis of colour pattern polymorphism in the harlequin ladybird

    Mathieu Gautier, Junichi Yamaguchi, Julien Foucaud, et al.



    Selected by Fillip Port

    Altering the temporal regulation of one transcription factor drives sensory trade-offs

    Ariane Ramaekers, Simon Weinberger, Annelies Claeys, et al.



    Selected by Mariana R.P. Alves

    A robust method for transfection in choanoflagellates illuminates their cell biology and the ancestry of animal septins

    David Booth, Heather Middleton, Nicole King



    Selected by Maya Emmons-Bell

    A SoxB gene acts as an anterior gap gene and regulates posterior segment addition in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum

    Christian L. B. Paese, Anna Schoenauer, Daniel J. Leite, et al.



    Selected by Erik Clark

    1

    Germ layer specific regulation of cell polarity and adhesion gives insight into the evolution of mesoderm.

    Miguel Salinas-Saavedra, Amber Q. Rock, Mark Q. Martindale



    Selected by ClaireS & SophieM

    1

    Wnt/β-catenin regulates an ancient signaling network during zebrafish scale development

    Andrew J Aman, Alexis N Fulbright, David M Parichy



    Selected by Andreas van Impel

    Bacteriophage cooperation suppresses CRISPR-Cas3 and Cas9 immunity

    Adair L Borges, Jenny Y Zhang, MaryClare Rollins, et al.

    AND

    Anti-CRISPR phages cooperate to overcome CRISPR-Cas immunity

    Mariann Landsberger, Sylvain Gandon, Sean Meaden, et al.



    Selected by Fillip Port

    Also in the microbiology category:

    Applications, Promises, and Pitfalls of Deep Learning for Fluorescence Image Reconstruction

    Chinmay Belthangady , Loic A. Royer



    Selected by Romain F. Laine

    Disrupting Transcriptional Feedback Yields an Escape-Resistant Antiviral

    Sonali Chaturvedi, Marie Wolf, Noam Vardi, et al.



    Selected by Pavithran Ravindran

    1

    Development and validation of serological markers for detecting recent exposure to Plasmodium vivax infection

    Rhea Jessica Longley, Michael T White, Eizo Takashima, et al.

    AND

    Antimalarial drug mefloquine kills both trophozoite and cyst stages of Entamoeba

    Conall Sauvey, Gretchen Ehrenkaufer, Anjan Debnath, et al.



    Selected by Zhang-He Goh

    Structure of a cytochrome-based bacterial nanowire

    David J Filman, Stephen F Marino, Joy E Ward, et al.



    Selected by Amberley Stephens

    Biofilm/Persister/Stationary Phase Bacteria Cause More Severe Disease Than Log Phase Bacteria II Infection with Persister Forms of Staphylococcus aureus Causes a Chronic Persistent Skin Infection with More Severe Lesion that Takes Longer to Heal and is not Eradicated by the Current Recommended Treatment in Mice

    Rebecca Yee, Yuting Yuan, Cory Brayton, et al.



    Selected by Snehal Kadam

    Acquired interbacterial defense systems protect against interspecies antagonism in the human gut microbiome

    Benjamin D. Ross, Adrian J. Verster, Matthew C. Radey, et al.



    Selected by Connor Rosen

    The Toll pathway inhibits tissue growth and regulates cell fitness in an infection-dependent manner

    Federico Germani, Daniel Hain, Denise Sternlicht, et al.



    Selected by Rohan Khadilkar

    The microbial basis of impaired wound healing: differential roles for pathogens, "bystanders", and strain-level diversification in clinical outcomes

    Lindsay Kalan, Jacquelyn S Meisel, Michael A Loesche, et al.



    Selected by Snehal Kadam

    CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene deletion of the ompA gene in an Enterobacter gut symbiont impairs biofilm formation and reduces gut colonization of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    Shivanand Hegde, Pornjarim Nilyanimit, Elena Kozlova, et al.



    Selected by Snehal Kadam

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens divisome proteins regulate the transition from polar growth to cell division

    Matthew L Howell, Alena Aliashkevich, Kousik Sundararajan, et al.



    Selected by Hannah Behrens

    Water quality and microbial load: a double-threshold identification procedure intended for space applications

    Stefano Amalfitano, Caterina Levantesi, Laurent Garrelly, et al.



    Selected by Daphne Ng

    1

    Entomophthovirus: An insect-derived iflavirus that infects a behavior manipulating fungal pathogen of dipterans

    Maxwell C Coyle, Carolyn N Elya, Michael J Bronski, et al.



    Selected by Hiral Shah

    Soil microbial habitats in an extreme desert Mars-analogue environment

    Kimberley Warren-Rhodes, Kevin Lee, Stephen Archer, et al.



    Selected by Daphne Ng

    Ecological analyses of mycobacteria in showerhead biofilms and their relevance to human health

    Matthew Gebert, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Angela Oliverio, et al.



    Selected by Hannah Behrens

    EFFECTORS OF THE SPINDLE ASSEMBLY CHECKPOINT BUT NOT THE MITOTIC EXIT NETWORK ARE CONFINED WITHIN THE NUCLEUS OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Lydia R Heasley, Jennifer G DeLuca, Steven M Markus



    Selected by Hiral Shah

    Peculiar features of the plastids of the colourless alga Euglena longa and photosynthetic euglenophytes unveiled by transcriptome analyses

    Kristina Zahonova, Zoltan Fussy, Erik Bircak, et al.



    Selected by Ellis O'Neill

    1

    Also in the molecular biology category:

    MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 activates Fanconi Anemia R-loop suppression at transcription-replication conflicts

    Emily Yun-Chia Chang, James P Wells, Shu-Huei Tsai, et al.



    Selected by Katie Weiner

    1

    Super-resolution Molecular Map of Basal Foot Reveals Novel Cilium in Airway Multiciliated Cells

    Quynh Nguyen, Zhen Liu, Rashmi Nanjundappa, et al.



    Selected by Robert Mahen

    Atlas of Subcellular RNA Localization Revealed by APEX-seq

    Furqan M Fazal, Shuo Han, Pornchai Kaewsapsak, et al.

    AND

    Proximity RNA labeling by APEX-Seq Reveals the Organization of Translation Initiation Complexes and Repressive RNA Granules

    Alejandro Padron, Shintaro Iwasaki, Nicholas Ingolia



    Selected by Christian Bates

    Unlimited genetic switches for cell-type specific manipulation

    Jorge Garcia-Marques, Ching-Po Yang, Isabel Espinosa-Medina, et al.



    Selected by Rafael Almeida

    1

    Stable knockout and complementation of receptor expression using in vitro cell line derived reticulocytes for dissection of host malaria invasion requirements

    Timothy J Satchwell, Katherine E Wright, Katy L Haydn-Smith, et al.



    Selected by Alyson Smith

    The coordination of terminal differentiation and cell cycle exit is mediated through the regulation of chromatin accessibility

    Yiqin Ma, Daniel J McKay, Laura Buttitta



    Selected by Gabriel Aughey

    1

    Disrupting Transcriptional Feedback Yields an Escape-Resistant Antiviral

    Sonali Chaturvedi, Marie Wolf, Noam Vardi, et al.



    Selected by Pavithran Ravindran

    1

    Multi-color single molecule imaging uncovers extensive heterogeneity in mRNA decoding

    Sanne Boersma, Deepak Khuperkar, Bram M.P. Verhagen, et al.



    Selected by Lorenzo Lafranchi

    Multi-color single molecule imaging uncovers extensive heterogeneity in mRNA decoding

    Sanne Boersma, Deepak Khuperkar, Bram M.P. Verhagen, et al.

    AND

    Live-cell single RNA imaging reveals bursts of translational frameshifting

    Kenneth R Lyon Jr, Luis U Aguilera, Tatsuya Morisaki, et al.



    Selected by Nicola Stevenson

    A non-canonical arm of UPRER mediates longevity through ER remodeling and lipophagy.

    Joseph R Daniele, Ryo Higuchi-Sanabria, Vidhya Ramachandran, et al.



    Selected by Sandra Malmgren Hill

    Retrieving High-Resolution Information from Disordered 2D Crystals by Single Particle Cryo-EM

    Ricardo Righetto, Nikhil Biyani, Julia Kowal, et al.



    Selected by David Wright

    The modular mechanism of chromocenter formation in Drosophila

    Madhav Jagannathan, Ryan Cummings, Yukiko M Yamashita



    Selected by Maiko Kitaoka

    1

    The structural basis for release factor activation during translation termination revealed by time-resolved cryogenic electron microscopy

    Ziao Fu, Gabriele Indrisiunaite, Sandip Kaledhonkar, et al.



    Selected by David Wright

    The cell wall regulates dynamics and size of plasma-membrane nanodomains in Arabidopsis.

    Joseph Franics McKenna, Daniel Rolfe, Stephen E D Webb, et al.



    Selected by Marc Somssich

    Psychiatric risk gene NT5C2 regulates protein translation in human neural progenitor cells

    Rodrigo R.R. Duarte, Nathaniel D. Bachtel, Marie-Caroline Cotel, et al.



    Selected by Joanna Cross

    DNA microscopy: Optics-free spatio-genetic imaging by a stand-alone chemical reaction

    Joshua A. Weinstein, Aviv Regev, Feng Zhang



    Selected by Theo Sanderson

    2

    Also in the plant biology category:

    Functional characterization of Arabidopsis ARGONAUTE 3 in reproductive tissue

    Pauline E Jullien, Stefan Grob, Antonin Marchais, et al.



    Selected by Chandra Shekhar Misra

    A SOSEKI-based coordinate system interprets global polarity cues in Arabidopsis

    Saiko Yoshida, Alja van der Schuren, Maritza van Dop, et al.



    Selected by Martin Balcerowicz

    1

    The embryonic transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Falko Hofmann, Michael A Schon, Michael D Nodine



    Selected by Chandra Shekhar Misra

    1

    The cell wall regulates dynamics and size of plasma-membrane nanodomains in Arabidopsis.

    Joseph Franics McKenna, Daniel Rolfe, Stephen E D Webb, et al.



    Selected by Marc Somssich

    A histidine kinase gene is required for large radius root tip circumnutation and surface exploration in rice

    Kevin R Lehner, Isaiah Taylor, Erin N McCaskey, et al.



    Selected by Martin Balcerowicz

    SOL1 and SOL2 Regulate Fate Transition and Cell Divisions in the Arabidopsis Stomatal Lineage

    Abigail R Simmons, Kelli A Davies, Wanpeng Wang, et al.



    Selected by Martin Balcerowicz

    TTL proteins scaffold brassinosteroid signaling components at the plasma membrane to optimize signal transduction in plant cells

    Vitor Amorim-Silva, Alvaro Garcia-Moreno, Araceli G Castillo, et al.



    Selected by Martin Balcerowicz

    1

    Peculiar features of the plastids of the colourless alga Euglena longa and photosynthetic euglenophytes unveiled by transcriptome analyses

    Kristina Zahonova, Zoltan Fussy, Erik Bircak, et al.



    Selected by Ellis O'Neill

    1

    Widespread inter-individual gene expression variability in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Sandra Cortijo, Zeynep Aydin, Sebastian Ahnert, et al.



    Selected by Martin Balcerowicz

    Photoperiod sensing of the circadian clock is controlled by ELF3 and GI

    Usman Anwer, Amanda Davis, Seth Jon Davis, et al.



    Selected by Annika Weimer

    PIN7 auxin carrier is a terminator of radial root expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Michel Ruiz Rosquete, Jurgen Kleine-Vehn

    AND

    PILS6 is a temperature-sensitive regulator of nuclear auxin input and organ growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Elena Feraru, Mugurel I. I Feraru, Elke Barbez, et al.



    Selected by Erin Sparks

    The expa1-1 mutant reveals a new biophysical lateral root organogenesis checkpoint

    Priya Ramakrishna, Graham A. Rance, Lam D. Vu, et al.



    Selected by Annika Weimer

    1

    Close